The 4 types of abhinaya (expressions) in dance are:
- Angika – physical or body movements.
- Vaachika – the song being played, poetry.
- Aahaarya – ornamentation of a character/dancer e.g. jewellery, costume.
- Saattvika – involuntary movements e.g. trembling, break of voice, tears.
This is beautifully mentioned in the Dhyana Sloka:
Angikam Bhuvanam Yasya
Vaachikam Sarva Vangmayam
Aahaaryam Chandra Taaraadi
Tam Numah (or Vande) Saattvikam Shivam
The sloka means —
Whose bodily movement is the entire Universe
Whose speech is the language (of the Universe)
Whose ornaments are the moon and the stars
Him, we worship the pure (serene) Lord Shiva!
|Bhuvanam||World (or Universe)|
|Numah (or Vandé)||Bow / pray|
Thandava & Lasya
The Dance performed by Lord Shiva is known as Thandava which produces vigorous, brisk movements. The dance performed with bliss is called Ananda Thandava. The Thandava of the violent and destructive aspect is called Rudra Thandava. There are 7 types of Thandava in Bharathanatyam:
- Ananda Thandava
- Tripura Thandava
- Sandhya Thandava
- Samara Thandava
- Kaali Thandava
- Uma Thandava
- Gauri Thandava
There are some Bharathanatyam experts who mentioned 16 types of Thandava.
The dance performed by Goddess Parvathi is known as Lasya. Here, the movements are soft, gentle, graceful and sometimes seen as erotic.
2 kinds of Lasya:
- Jarita Lasya
- Yauvaka Lasya
Navarasas (9 Sentiments)
Bhava (psychological states or moods)
- Vibhava: determinants
- Anubhava: consequences or results
- Sthayi bhava: permanent mood
- Vyabhichari bhava: transitory mood
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